(For the History and Design of Typefaces)

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1. Introduction

Initially, this whole set of Notebooks was to have been about the physical making of type, a much neglected process. When in addition I started to collect notes about the history of the design of typefaces, even though I did so with an eye to associating them with their physical makers (punchcutters, matrix engravers, type foundries) the subject got a bit out of hand. (The design of type, unlike its making, has not been neglected these past hundred years or more.) This was fine, but it threatened to swamp the Bibliography (For Making Printing Types) with history and design items. I've therefore factored these out and put them here.

A few text concerned primarily with design are also pretty good at identifying makers (Alexander Lawson's { Anatomy of a Typeface. (1990) }, for example). In an erratic and unsystematic way, I've sometimes included these in both bibliographies.

2. Bibliography

{ATF 1897} American Type Founders Company. Specimen Book of Type. NY: American Type Founders Company, 1897.

Online at

{ATF 1912} American Type Founders Company. American Specimen Book of Type Styles. Jersey City, NJ: American Type Founders Company, 1912.

Online at

{ATF 1923} American Type Founders Company. Specimen Book and Catalog. Jersey City, NJ: American Type Founders Company, 1923.

Annenberg, Maurice. Type Foundries of America and their Catalogs. Baltimore, MD: Maran Publishing Services, 1975.

Bruckner, D. J. R. Frederic Goudy. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990.

Carter, Sebastian. Twentieth Century Type Designers. Second Edition. NY: W. W. Norton, 1995.

Uncharacteristically for a late 20th century writer, he frequently cites foundry names and even punchcutters and matrix engravers. This is good.

Goudy, Frederic W. "On Designing a Type Face." in The Dolphin: A Journal of the Making of Books . No. 1. NY: The Limited Editions Club, 1933. Pages 3-23.

Available online at Carnegie-Mellon University's Posner Library:

---. A Half-Century of Type Design and Typography. NY: The Typophiles, 1946.

Posthumously published showing of all of his acknowledged faces. The showings of the faces have been reproduced in Bruckner's Frederic W. Goudy. (1990).

---. Typologia. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press, 1940.

The Inland Printer. Vol. 32, No. 4 (January 1904). (Chicago: The Inland Printer Company, 1904).

Page 539 contains a showing of Goudy's Village type.

Intertype Corporation Intertype Faces [/] Condensed Book No. 4 [/] One-Line Specimens Arranged by Point Size . Brooklyn, NY: Intertype Corporation, 1948.

Lawson, Alexander. Anatomy of a Typeface. Boston, MA: David R. Godine, 1990.

A good study of type, but particularly useful because he documents (almost incidentally) the relationships between the artist-designers and the typefoundries and composing/casting machine companies who commissioned and produced the designs. There's a lot of history of the hot metal era hiding in his offhand remarks.

Ludlow Typograph Company. Some Ludlow Typefaces. Chicago: Ludlow Typograph Company, [no date].

Mergenthaler Linotype Company. Specimen Book of Linotype Faces. ["Big Red"] Brooklyn, NY: Mergenthaler Linotype Company, [No date; before July 1939].

[Morris, William.] The Art and Craft of Printing, [Collected Essays] by William Morris . New Rochelle, NY: The Elston Press, 1902. [Printed by Clarke Conwell. Copyright 1902 by H. M. O'Kane.]

This is an American reprint of several Morris (and Cockerell) texts. It is done in the style of Morris, but of course could not have been done literally with Morris' types, which were not commercially available. (Sydney Cockerell, in his "A Short History and Description of the Kelmscott Press" (1898), which, ironically, is reprinted in this work, says of the Kelmscott books that many were "stolen and parodied in America." It would be interesting to determine which pirated version of the type appears here.) This is a bibliographically difficult work but it posesses the great advantage that it is out of copyright, reproduces the Chaucer, Troy, and Golden types literally, and is available online at It isn't a bad book (despite the amusing introduction of a heretofore unknown author, "Milliam Morris," on p. 43), and you work with what you have.

The texts reprinted are:

(Note: I have had to reverse-engineer the authorship of the "Annotated List" from antiquarian book catalog entries online for the original publication (" A Note by William Morris on His Aims in Founding the Kelmscott Press. Together with a Short Description of the Press by S. C. Cockerell & an Annotated List of the Books Printed Thereat ." (Hammersmith: Kelmscott Press, 1898.)) I don't have access to the original rare publication, and don't possess a reprint (the ones which include the full text with a all three pieces ("Note," "History," and "List") are not inexpensive). That a freely available scan does not exist of the original version of this public domain work, (one of the most important in this history of modern printing) is a discredit to typographical studies.)

As noted, most of this volume must have been re-set by the Elston Press in the style of Morris. It also contains five pages literally from Morris, reproduced by means of "process blocks" (photomechanical process reproduction, I assume; the particular process is unspecified) showing the Golden, Troy, and Chaucer types. Tracking down the sources for the process copies of Morris' pages would be trivial for a good Morris scholar (I am not). Two are relatively simple. These are the frontispiece from Note by William Morris... (Psyche Borne Off by Zephyrus, intended for an edition of The Earthly Paradise) and the opening page of the same Note.... The other three, showing the Chaucer and Troy types, are more difficult. The text they contain is from Morris' essay "The Lesser Arts," but a reference to the original pre-Kelmscott publication of that essay in Hopes and Fears for Art (London: Ellis & White, 1882.) [Online via both Google Books and A look at it is enough to see why Morris started his own press.] Cockerell's "An Annotated List..." says that the original edition of A Note by William Morris on His Aims... was set in the Golden type and contained "five pages in the Chaucer and Troy types." I am presuming that these are they, but I could be wrong.

Peterson, William S., ed. The Ideal Book. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

This is a reprint of a number of works by and about William Morris, with a very good introduction which contains information about Morris' types and their development. The works reproduced are:

Unfortunately, it does not reproduce Cockerell's "An Annotated List of all the Books Printed at the Kelmscott Press in the Order in which They were Issued" (which is fine, but it omits all reference to it). The titles of the book are printed in Morris' Golden type (from original fonts), although the body of the text is set in Bembo.

Southward, John, Arthur Powell, and George Joyner. Practical Printing: A Handbook of the Art of Typography . Sixth Edition. London: The "Printers' Register" Office, 1911. Two volumes.

Thompson, Paul The Work of William Morris. Third Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1991.

The material on type and printing here is very brief.

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